The town of Montepulciano has a past linked in part all’essersi found at the intersection of two roads of regional importance (from Chiusi to Arezzo from south to north, from the Val d’Orcia and the Val di Chiana and Lake Trasimeno from east to west) and in part to its strategic location on the border of the area of influence of various potentates low medieval citizens (Orvieto, Perugia, Siena, Florence). This has meant that in the early centuries of the second millennium has developed wealth and power so remarkable, to the point that they become coveted and appreciable gain autonomy selling well its alliance with the major cities in perpetual conflict to himself. Unfortunately, his final entry in the Florentine state, after 1511, he has devoted the importance of formal (which is reflected in the prominence of public and private buildings made after that date, and the erection in the diocese in 1561) has started a slow economic and social decline, to the point that in the eighteenth century the Grand Duke of Tuscany Pietro Leopoldo worried about it, and s’interrogava on ways to revive a center prestigious and decadent. In the nineteenth century the reclamation of the Chiana Valley and the renewed importance of the city, which became the administrative center of the area, have marked an appreciable revitalization, but it does not last more than half of the twentieth century, the loss of population in the valley, for emigration in the North of many farmers who will become the workforce for the factories, and the changing ways of cultivating the land, has not yet been fully compensated by a similar growth in small and medium industries or services. Despite this, the artistic prestige and history of the town still has a remarkable charm, even at the international level, and this gives hope that Montepulciano can be transformed permanently into a center of cultural production.